Category: общество

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Menachot 39 – Forbidden Mixture of Wool and Linen is Allowed in Tzitzit

Normally, wearing wool and linen together is forbidden – to rectify the murder of Abel the shepherd by Cain the linen grower. However, the woolen blue strings in tzitzit can be attached to a linen garment. How do we know this?

The Torah said, “You shall not wear shaatnez, wool and linen together. [But] You shall make yourself braided fringes on the four corners of your garments.” This teaches that although shaatnez is forbidden, in tzitzit it is allowed. Moreover, one cannot say that the linen and wool are simply put together, because the tzitzit must have at least one double knot, which makes it permanently attached, and thus part to the garment.

The braiding should be done with no less than seven loops, to remind one of the seven heavens, and no more than thirteen loops, to correspond to the seven heavens and the six spaces between them.

All four-cornered garments require tzitzit. Rav Nachman exempts the silk garments. But we learned that they too require tzitzit?! - Says Rav Nachman, “By the decree of the Sages, to make it look good.”

Art: Caspar David Friedrich - Moonrise over the Sea

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Sanhedrin 58 – Noahide Marital Laws

The Noahide marital laws are derived from “...therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother and cling to his wife...,” - but not to the wife of his fellow, not to an animal, etc.

A Noahite is permitted to marry his daughter. If you ask, why did Adam not marry his daughter? - so that Cain could marry his sister, based on “The world will be built through kindness” in Psalms. A Noahite is also permitted to marry his sister. Didn't we just say that “The world will be built through kindness” allowed Cain to marry his sister, but otherwise it would be prohibited?! True, but once it was permitted to Cain, it remained permitted.

Art: Edward John Gregory- Mabel, Daughter of Charles Galloway

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Bava Batra 171 – Partial Debt Payments without Trust

One who repaid part of his debt will naturally want to ensure that the loan document will not be used against him to collect the debt twice. Unlike the previous case, they do not have a third party that the both trust. They cannot add to the loan document, because an unscrupulous lender can cut this off. Nor can they add to the top of the document, because witnesses must sign immediately below the last line.

Rabbi Yehudah says that they should write a new loan document for the remainder of the debt, but the borrower should not be forced to guard the receipt. Rabbi Yossi says that they should write a receipt, and the borrower should guard it, since people pay larger debts faster, and since “…a borrower is a servant to the lender.” The accepted law follows Rabbi Yossi.

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Bava Batra 169 – Debt Collection Procedure

When a creditor attempts to collect his debt, he lodges a complaint in court, proffering his loan document as a proof. If the debtor cannot pay, the court tears up the loan document and provides the lender with a collection warrant. The lender searches for assets belonging to the borrower and when he finds those subject to his lien, he takes the collection warrant to court at that locale. The court tears up the collection warrant and issues a repossession warrant. When the lender takes possession of the property, the court tears up the repossession warrant and writes a certificate of appraisal, used in the eventuality that the borrower later pays the amount and reclaims his field.

If one claims that he lost a deed of sale, they write a replacement for him, but omit the repossession guarantee, to prevent the possibility of him later collecting twice, breaking the sequence outlined above.

Art: Jan de Bray - The Haarlem Painters' Guild

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